科技新闻的隐喻架构探讨——以人民网英文版为例

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论文字数:33233 论文编号:sb2022070922304248976 日期:2022-07-23 来源:硕博论文网

本文是一篇语言学论文,本研究运用框架理论对2021 1月至2021 3月《人民日报》在线(英文版)“科技”栏目的新闻进行分析,可以使人们更好地理解隐喻和框架在科技新闻中的作用,更好地解读科技新闻的认知过程。它还可以帮助人们理解演讲背后传达的价值观。同时,也为媒体工作者撰写科技新闻提供了一些思路。
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
The sentence“science and technology are the primary productive forces”fullyexplains the importance of science and technology for a country and a nation.Eachleader in China attaches great importance to the development and innovation ofscience and technology.Historical experience shows that scientific and technologicalinnovation can always profoundly change the world development pattern andprofoundly influence the status of a country.Looking back on the past,China once ledthe world in scientific and technological achievements represented by the“four greatinventions”.Since modern times,China has repeatedly missed the scientific andtechnological revolution.And the result was painful.Because a weak country isvulnerable to attack.After the unremitting efforts since the founding of New China,especially since reform and opening up,China’s overall scientific and technologicalcapabilities have been continuously improved.And in some important fields,Chinahas led the world,such as agriculture,biomedicine,national defense and militaryaffairs,and information technology.A large number of innovative achievements havebeen made in these important fields,which have greatly enhanced China’scomprehensive national strength.
General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly emphasized the importance ofscience and technology in public speeches.In the speech delievered by GeneralSecretary Xi,he also stressed that to achieve prosperity and rejuvenation,China mustdedicate itself to advancing science and technology,and become a major world centerfor science and innovation.The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPCCC emphasizedthat China should persist in the core position of innovation in the overall situation ofChina’s modernization drive,take scientific and technological self-reliance as the strategic support for national development,and take perfecting the system andmechanism of scientific and technological innovation as an important content ofpersisting in innovation-driven development and comprehensively shaping newadvantages of development.And China will uphold the central role of innovation inits modernization drive and make greater efforts to achieve breakthroughs in key andcore technologies,according to the draft outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan and thelong-range objectives through the year 2035.
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1.2 Research Significance
There are abundant metaphors in scientific and technological discourse,whichcan help the public understand science and technology news through the cognitivemechanism of metaphor.Therefore,this study has both theoretical and practicalsignificance.
In terms of theoretical significance,on the one hand,this study expands theresearch scope of Framing Theory and deepens our understanding of the construction of scientific and technological discourse.On the other hand,it also provides a newperspective for the study of scientific and technological discourse.
As far as practical significance is concerned,it can be summarized from twoaspects.First of all,from the reader’s point of view,it can give readers some hints tounderstand unfamiliar science and technology news through metaphors and helpreaders understand news more profoundly and vividly.Secondly,from the perspectiveof news media,this study can provide some insights on how to make news languageeasier to understand and more attractive through metaphors.

语言学论文怎么写
语言学论文怎么写

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Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Previous Studies on Metaphor in News Discourse
Since Lakoff and Johnson(1980)put forward“conceptual metaphor”,manylinguists have done a lot of research on metaphors from the cognitive perspective.Thescope of metaphor research is not only limited to literary rhetoric but graduallyexpands to technical discourse,economic discourse,political discourse and so on.Thestudy of metaphor in news discourse is included.News English is a kind of Englishfor specific purposes.As an official language for the exchange of information betweenthe country and citizens,it appears in newspapers,TV broadcasts and other massmedia.News discourse is concise,objective and accurate,and has its owncharacteristics.Metaphors are applied to news English to make the language vivid andeasy to understand and reflect certain ideologies sometimes.
Henderson’s article“Metaphor in Economics”(1994),published in Economists,isregarded as the first work to study metaphor in the economic discourse.He focusedon the operation of metaphors in economic discourse and pointed out that metaphor isvery common and plays an important role in economic discourse and many otherdiscourses.Then McClosky(1998)further studied metaphorical expression in news.In The Rhetoric of Economics,McClosky analyzed a series of metaphors used in news,such as“invisible hand”and“depression”.In 2004,Chartres-Black made a criticalanalysis of metaphors in news discourse,including sports news and financial news.He found that British media used a lot of metaphors in news.The typical ones are“Sports are War”and“Economy is People”.Reporters can express their opinions andattitudes unconsciously.In the same year,Koller studied metaphors in business newsbased on the theoretical framework of combining criticism with cognition.In the nextyears,more and more scholars studied conceptual metaphors in news discourse.
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2.2 Previous Studies on Framing Theory
Framing Theory can be traced back to 1932,Bartlett put forward the concept inhis study of memory(Fillmore,1975).Lakoff introduced the frame analysis of framesemantics,sociology and communication into the field of political discourse,andfounded Framing Theory combined with the research results of cognitive linguisticsand neurocognitive science.Influenced by Lakoff,scholars have applied FramingTheory to the analysis of political discourse.
Norocle(2010)used Lakoff’s American political metaphor family model toanalyze radical right-wing political discourse during the Romanian election andlearned how to deliberately use the family metaphor frame to support political views.Flanik(2011)thought that metaphors and frames explain how people have so manycommon meanings through communication,and influence their thinking on reasoningand conceptual structure,which has a great influence on decision-making.Deason andGonzales(2012)made an empirical study on Lakoff’s metaphorical model ofAmerican moral politics by examining the award-winning speeches of the presidential conference and the presidential TV advertisements.Bougher(2012)emphasizespublic political reasoning and metaphor.He thought that metaphors cannot only betterexplain how citizens view the political world and why they hold their own preferences,but also their standards and procedures are more relevant to the study of politics andpublic opinion.In the article,Bougher’s viewpoint emphasized the interactionbetween the political speaker and audiences.Östman(2012)made an ideologicalanalysis of the president based on the metaphor of Lakoff’s theory that the country isa family and analyzed the inaugural speeches of Bush and Obama to understand howthey described conservatism and freedom.Moses and Gonzales(2015)used Lakoff’smoral model of the two parties in the United States to analyze the moral language inAmerican presidential TV speeches from 1980 to 2012.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework.....................................15
3.1 Development of Framing Theory.......................................15
3.2 Hierarchy of Frames...........................................17
Chapter Four Analysis of Frames in Science and Technology News.....................22
4.1 Analysis of Metaphorical Surface Frames..................................22
4.1.1 Measurement Metaphorical Frame...........................24
4.1.2 Journey Metaphorical Frame.................................26
Chapter Five Conclusion........................................46
5.1 Major Findings........................................46
5.2 Limitations of the Study..................................47
Chapter Four Analysis of Frames in Science and Technology News
4.1 Analysis of Metaphorical Surface Frames
There are 1961 metaphorical words identified in the collected corpus.Afterclassification and generalization,seven main metaphorical surface frames can be gotwith a total of 1139 metaphorical words.And it is necessary to understand thedistribution of the main metaphorical surface frames in the corpus before analyzingthe surface frames.

语言学论文参考
语言学论文参考

From the distribution of metaphorical words,it can be seen thatMEASUREMENT FRAME is used mostly,followed by JOURNEY FRAME andPEOPLE FRAME.The following study will further analyze each metaphorical framewith examples.
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Chapter Five Conclusion
5.1 Major Findings
Based on Lakoff’s Framing Theory,this study takes the news from the“Scienceand Technology”Section of People’s Daily Online(English version)as the researchobjects.By using the metaphor identification procedure,that is MIPVU,themetaphors in these three months’news are first identified.Then identify themetaphorical surface frames in the science and technology news,and infer the deepframes based on the analysis of the metaphorical surface frames.The major findingsare presented in the following.
First of all,there are a lot of metaphors in the news from the“Science andTechnology”Section of People’s Daily Online(English version)from January 2021 toMarch 2021.And a total of 1139 metaphorical words have been identified.This showsthat it is feasible to use Framing Theory to analyze scientific and technological newsdiscourse.The metaphorical surface frames used in science and technology news inthese three months can be divided into seven categories,that is MEASUREMENTFRAME,JOURNEY FRAME,ARCHITECTURE FRAME,WAR FRAME,PERFORMANCE FRAME,PLANT FRAME and PEOPLE FRAME.It shows thescene that science and technology are booming.Moreover,the achievements ofscientific and technological development are closely related to people’s lives.Andmost of the surface frames used are well-known concepts.
Secondly,by analyzing the metaphorical surface frames,the deep frames can beinferred.The deep frames conveyed by the corpus are development,struggle andcooperation.Measurement Frame,Plant Frame and the concept of advancement inJourney Frame have activated the development of science and technology.War Frameand the difficulties in Journey Frame activate the spirit of struggle.Architecture Frame,Performance Frame and People Frame activate the spirit of cooperation behindthe development of science and technology.
Thirdly,the discourse construction of science and technology news can refer tothe following mode:intention→deep frames→surface frames→expression.Scienceand technology news is used to spread scientific and technological events,publicizescientific and technological policies and advanced technologies,and popularizescientific knowledge to society.It uses deep frames consistent with the readers’innermorality and values,which can deepen the readers’impression.
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