国外游客对旅游景点品牌形象评价探讨——以辽宁省为例

论文价格:300元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:硕博论文网 点击次数:
论文字数:38599 论文编号:sb2022021715100243625 日期:2022-02-19 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇旅游管理论文,本研究旨在实现以下具体研究目标:评估与辽宁省相关的认知品牌形象,检验与辽宁省相关的有效品牌形象,确定与辽宁省相关的个人品牌形象为旅游景点,考察辽宁省整体品牌形象作为旅游景点的感知,最后考察认知、情感和个性品牌形象与辽宁省整体品牌形象之间的关系。本研究总共使用了120名外国游客,数据是通过研究人员编制的结构良好的问卷收集的。在数据收集过程结束时,所有120份问卷均已成功填写并返回。检查回答的完整性和填写的准确性、缺失值,然后编码输入SPSS和Minitab软件包进行分析。调查结果摘要如下。

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1Background and Significance of the Study
1.1.1 Background of the Study
Tourism has become one of the largest global industries and arguably, could bedescribed as the world’s largest industry (Shantha, 2005; Benfield, 2004). Global tourismarrivals have been estimated to increase to 1.6 billion by the year 2020 (Havi&Enu,2013). This promising prospect has propelled this industry into its current position as oneof the world’s biggest employers. In light of this, tourism has become keenly competitivewith countries constantly working to identify various means of increasing theirattractiveness. As the increasing importance of tourism has been realized by moredestinations and countries, the stern struggle to get a larger share of tourism benefits hasbecome inevitable. The increasing tourism revenues worldwide and the intensecompetition have forced destinations to build favorable destination images to attractmore visitors (Baloglu, 2000, cited from Gartner, 1993). Developing a competitiveposition among tourism destinations is usually accomplished by creating and transmittinga favorable image to potential tourists in target markets (Baloglu, 2000, cited fromGartner, 1993). At both the local and international levels, tourism destinations oftencompete on nothing more than the images held in the minds of potential tourists.Therefore, marketers of tourist destinations spend a great amount of money, time, andeffort to create a favorable image to help attract prospective tourists to visit theirdestinations. Images play an essential role in destination choice matters, and the ultimategoal of any destination is to influence possible tourists’ travel-related decision makingand choice through marketing activities.
Although not all elements contributing to the development of an image can becontrolled, tourism marketers want to strategically establish, reinforce and, if necessary,change the image of their destination (Chi &Qu, 2008). Brand management scholarsargue that brand image is an essential part of powerful brands. A strong brand candifferentiate a product from its competitors (Lim &O'Cass, 2001), reduce search costs,minimize perceived risks and represent high quality from a consumer's point of view (Erdem, 1998). To develop a positioning strategy, potential travelers’ images of thedestination relative to its competitors provide useful insights. According to (Floyd &Pennington-Gray, 2004), cited in Javalgi, Thomas&Rao 1992), in the presence of a fiercecompetitive environment, destination marketers should have a sound understanding ofthe image travelers’ have with their destination as well as an understanding of the imagetourists’ hold of competing destinations. Also, competing destinations needed todifferentiate their image to have a competitive edge (Kozak & Baloglu, 2011). As Hosany,Ekinci and Uysal (2006) pointed out, ‘in today’s competitive environment, creating andmanaging an appropriate destination image and destination personality have become vitalfor effective product positioning.’
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1.2 Scope and Objectives of the Study
1.2.1 Scope of the Study
The study evaluates foreign tourists’ brand image for tourist attractions in LiaoningProvince in China. Geographically, the study focuses on tourist attractions withinLiaoning Province which includes Shenyang, Dalian, Dandong, Anshan, Fushun, Jinzhou,Yingkou, Benxi, Fuxin, Liaoyang, Panjin, Tieling, Chaoyang and Huludao. It alsofocuses on all types of visitors (first- and regular-visitors) in examining the brand image.The study incorporates multiple components of the destination image such as cognitive,affective, and overall image.1.2.2 Objectives of the Study
1.2.2 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to evaluate foreign tourists’ brand image for touristattractions in Liaoning Province. The study is guided by the following specificobjectives.
(1)Specific Objectives:
The study is guided by the following specific objectives:
1. Evaluate the cognitive brand image associated with the Province.2. Examine the affective brand image respondent’s associate with the Province3. Identify the personality brand image associated with the Province as touristattraction.4. Examine the relationship between cognitive, affective and personality brandimage and overall brand image of the Province.
旅游管理论文怎么写
旅游管理论文怎么写
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2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1Tourism Defined
2.1.1 Definition of Tourism
Tourism is an ability of people to travel for a certain period of time to places outsidetheir usual environment and the major purpose of their travel is leisure, business andother purposes. The duration of stay outside the usual environment is in case of domestictourism up to six months, in case of foreign tourism up to one consecutive year(Palatková, 2011). Tourism is a major force in the economy of a country. It is definitelyan activity of global significance. The definition of tourism can be explained by bothdemand side and supply side (Cooper et al, 2005). The demand side definition wasdeveloped as the first one. According to this definition by the World TourismOrganization (WTO) and United Nations Statistics (UNSTAT) Division (2012), tourismwas defined as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside theirusual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and otherpurposes.” A tourist at any tourist attractions is either a first time visitor or occasionalvisitor. Thus, the study will not focus on only first-time visitors like that of(Sahin&Balogu, 2011), but all visitors to the province are to be included. This thereforeleads us to delve into the various types and forms of tourism as identified in literature.
A tourist in foreign tourism is a person who travels into another country than the onewhere he has her/his usual residence and for a period not longer than one year butincluding at least one night, where the major purpose of the travel is not making of abusiness (Palatková, 2011). A visitor is a person who travels to a country other than theone where he/she has his/her usual residence but outside his usual environment for aperiod not exceeding 12 months and whose major purpose of visit is other than anactivity remunerated from within the country visited (Cooper et al, 2005). A same day visitor is a person who does not spend the night in a collective or private accommodationin the visited country. It includes for example the travelers returning to ship or train tosleep (Cooper et al, 2005). A resident is a person who has lived for most of the past yearin a certain country or who has lived in that country for a shorter period of time andintends to return within 12 months to live in that country (Cooper et al, 2005).
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2.2 Brand Image and Destination Branding
2.2.1Brand Image
The American Marketing Association (2008) defines a brand as “A name, term,design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinctfrom those of other sellers.” Brands serve as promises and in doing so, allow customersto set expectations, thus, lowering perceived monetary, safety, or social risk (Berry, 2000).This is particularly important in services, due to the difficulties associated withevaluation prior to purchase. One need not look further than the shelves of the nearestconvenience store to see the significance of branding in today’s world. Customers aresure to find brands like Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Red Bull, and Evian in the drink coolers, andwould even likely be surprised if they were absent. These are just a few of the manyexamples of companies that enjoy the benefits from successful branding strategies.According to literature brands can also own “mental real estate” in the minds ofconsumers. Consumers choose to purchase certain brands because they know what toexpect and can make assumptions about the quality they will receive. This simplifiesconsumers’ decision making processes, as they do not need to relearn the market eachtime they make a purchase. An example of this can be illustrated in the world ofautomobiles. Each time a particular consumer is in the market to purchase a vehicle, theylikely already associate certain brands with specific characteristics. The overall objectiveof branding is to improving brand equity. Improved brand equity can translate to a formof differentiation relative to competitors, increased brand loyalty, greater market share,and the ability to charge price premiums (Shimp, 2007).
Past research has explored a number of branding principles that can be applied to avariety of products or services. The study of Kerr (2006) addressed three of theseconcepts; Brand Architecture, Brand Portfolio, and the Corporate Brand. Brandarchitecture refers to the “way in which companies organize, manage, and go to marketwith their brands”. Companies may be categorized into a “branded house,” in which amaster brand dominates an array of offerings with sub brand names, or a “house ofbrands,” where a number of standalone brands operate independently to maximize profit.The brand portfolio not only involves the brands included, but also the structure, scope, associations, and relationships between those brands. Corporate branding allowsmarketing to incorporate the company’s vision and culture into its selling proposition. Itis also important to note that the corporate brand affects the thought of images of theorganization by all its stakeholders, including employees, customers, investors, suppliers,partners, regulators, special interest groups, and local communities (Kerr, 2006).
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3 THEORETICALBASIS AND RESEARCH DESIGN.............................. 28
3.1 Theoretical Basis................................ 28
3.1.1 Relationship betweenOverallImage, CognitiveandAffectiveEvaluations........... 28
3.1.2 Application of Brand Personality to Destinations....................................... 30
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS...................................37
4.1 Preliminary Analysis....................................... 37
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents..................................38
4.3 Components of Brand Image.............................41
5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND ECOMMENDATIONS.........................52
5.1 Summary of Findings...........................52
5.2 Conclusions....................................... 53
5.3 Recommendations........................... 54

4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1Preliminary Analysis
The objective of the study is to evaluate foreign tourists’ brand image for touristattractions in Liaoning Province. The chapter describes the findings and discussions ofthe study. The data presentations are based on the research objectives guiding the study,and SPSS is used in the data analysis. The data presentation is as follows; PreliminaryAnalysis (Reliability Tests); demographic characteristics; Components of Brand Image;Overall Brand Image of Liaoning Province; Relationship between Affective, Cognitive,Personality Brand Image dimensions and the Overall Brand Image of Liaoning Province,KMO and Bartlett's Test; Latent Factors Description and Major Factors InfluencingBrand Image of Liaoning Province. In analyzing the data, frequencies, percentages,means and standard deviations, as well as regression analysis are used. In all, a sample ofa hundred and twenty (120) respondents was used. Considering the larger number ofrespondents and with the issue of COVID-19 pandemic, the selected sample size is ideal,due to time and other resources. All 120 questionnaires are filled and returned. Thisrepresented a 100% response rate, which is considered very high. This is becauseMugenda and Mugenda (2003) said that 50% response rate is adequate, 60% is good andabove 70% is rated very high. There is the need to verify the reliability of the variousconstructs of the study before the analysis. This is done with the aid of Cronbach’s Alpha(reliability test). The results are presented in the next section (Table 4.1).
Table 4.1 shows the Cronbach’s alpha which serves as a scale reliability measure forthe constructs under consideration. Reliability in this context measures the quality andconsistency of the data collection and analysis techniques used. The table, which presentsthe psychometric information of the various constructs on the questionnaire shows thatthe reliability measures recorded are above the recommended (0.500) of Hair et al.(2010).
旅游管理论文参考
旅游管理论文参考
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5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND ECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of Findings
The objective of the study is to evaluate foreign tourists’ brand image for touristattractions in Liaoning Province. This chapter is the last of series of five chapters whichpresents a summary findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for furtherstudies. The study is designed with the following specific research objectives: toevaluate the cognitive brand image associated with Liaoning Province, to examine theaffective brand image respondents associate with Liaoning Province, identify thepersonality brand image associated with Liaoning Province as tourist attraction, examinethe perception of the overall brand image of Liaoning Province as tourist attraction, andfinally, examine the relationship between cognitive, affective and personality brandimage and overall brand image of Liaoning Province. In all, 120 foreign tourists are usedin the study, and data is collected with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire preparedby the researcher. At the end of the data collection process, all the 120 questionnaires arefilled and returned successfully. The responses were inspected for completeness andaccuracy of filling, missing values, and then coded for entry into SPSS and Minitabsoftware packages for analysis. The summary of findings is presented below.
In summary, majority of the respondents of the study (77.2%) are males. Also, morethan half (55.8%) of the respondents are between the ages of 25 to 34 years. Anothermajority (60%) hold Bachelor degree certificates. Furthermore, a greater proportion(95.8%) of the respondents is from Asia and Africa. In addition, most (81.7%) of therespondents are first time and more than twice in a year visitors. Also, more thanthree-quarters of the respondents (85.8%) stayed in the province during their visit for amonth or more. In adding, most (76.7%) of the respondents visit Liaoning Province foreducational purposes. Also, about three-thirds (73.3%) of the respondents obtainedinformation about the province from the internet and based on recommendations fromfriends. Finally, the most visited area in Liaoning Province is Jinzhou, Shenyang andDalian and the least is Benxi.
reference(omoitted)

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