多哥经济作物生产效率测度及影响因素探讨

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论文字数:39966 论文编号:sb2022030811102944634 日期:2022-03-15 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇经济论文,笔者认为农业产业化经营的实质是以现代工业经营的方式组织现代农业的生产经营。是农业和农村经济结构战略性调整的重要动力,是农民增收的主渠道。多哥经济作物的低生产效率是由于农业的广泛经济投入方式。粗放的经济投入方式使农业资源的投入在很大程度上浪费。农业产业化要求农业增长方式从传统粗放型向现代集约型转变,使农业增长从依赖土地、资本、劳动力等生产要素的投入转变,要依靠科技进步来推动一切。以提高生产要素生产率为重点,实现了农业增长方式的质的飞跃。

1 Introduction

1.1 Research background and significance
1.1.1 Background
Togo is located in western Africa, with a population of about 7.9 million and an area of 56785 square kilometers. It borders Benin to the east, Ghana to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, and the  Gulf  of  Guinea  to  the  south.  The  south  has  a  tropical  rainforest  climate,  and  the  north  has  a tropical grassland climate. The average annual temperature is 27°C in the coastal areas and 30°C in the north. Agriculture, phosphate and re-export trade are the three pillar industries.
Togo  is  one  of  the  least  developed  countries  in  the  world  announced  by  the  United  Nations, and  its  agricultural  productivity  is  not  high.  At  the  same  time,  Togo  is  a  traditional  agricultural country, and agriculture is the backbone of the national economy, contributing 60% of the jobs and more  than  40%  of  GDP  to  Togo.  Togo's  main  food  crops  include  cassava,  ginseng  potato,  corn, sorghum,  rice,  beans,  etc. The  total  output  in  2019  was  5.8279  million  tons.  For  many  years,  the Togolese government has been committed to promoting agricultural development. Since 1983, the Togolese  government  has  implemented  an  economic  restructuring  plan,  adopted  a  liberalized economic  policy,  and  prioritized  the  development  of  agriculture.  Since  2011,  the  Togolese government  has  implemented  the  National  Agricultural  Investment  and  Food  Security  Plan  to expand agricultural production. Togo organizes the National Farmers Forum in Kara every year to improve  agricultural  efficiency.  The  government  promised  at  the  forum  that  it  will  incre ase investment  in  the  agricultural  sector,  protect  farmers‟  land,  and  create  better  conditions  for domestic  and  foreign  private  sector  investment  to  promote  crop  production,  storage,  processing and sales. In March 2019, Togo launched a new national development plan (2018-2022), hoping to embark  on  a  path  of  comprehensive  development.  Among  them,  the  second  article  mentions  the establishment of agricultural product processing and manufacturing industrial parks, and strive to increase  the  added  value  of  products  and  reduce  the  trade  deficit  by  2022  by  local  processing  of more than half of the agricultural products.
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1.2 Literature review in Togo and abroad research
Efficiency first refers to effective factors, which first  appeared in Latin. Efficiency was first applied mainly in mechanical engineering at the end of the nineteenth century. It was expressed in a ratio, expressed as the ratio of output to input energy. Subsequently, efficiency has been widely used  in  various  disciplines,  in  addition  to  the  most  applications  in  economics.  One  of  the  most frequently  used  and  widely  used  terms  in  economic  practice  and  theoretical  applications  is efficiency,  such  as:  consumption  efficiency,  distribution  efficiency,  production  efficiency, organizational  efficiency,  exchange  efficiency,  dynamic  efficiency,  static  efficiency,  technical efficiency, institutional efficiency, and market Efficiency etc. That is to say, because the concept of efficiency  is  so  widely  used,  so  far,  the  concept  of  efficiency  has  not  been  recognized  by  the economics community with an exact definition. 
The  definition  of  efficiency  in  the  most  authoritative  economic  dictionaries  in  the  West regards resource allocation efficiency as efficiency, and defines allocation efficiency as "resource allocation  efficiency  indicates  that  the  economic  operation  can  satisfy  humanity  as  much  as possible under technical conditions and resource constraints. Needs". Pindick calls "the sum of the welfare  of  producers  and  consumers"  the  efficiency  of  resource  allocation.  The  concept  of efficiency is also embodied in Marx's theory of surplus value, and the real wealth in the book can clarify  the  meaning  of  efficiency.  He  believes  that  real  wealth  is  to  create  as  much  value  as possible  with  as  little  value  as  possible.  In  Samuelson's  book  "Economics",  he  puts  "efficiency means  no  waste,  that  is,  the  economy  operates  efficiently  under  such  conditions:  in  or der  to increase the production of one kind of goods, one must reduce the production of another one. The production of this kind of goods can only be realized, and the economic operation on the frontier of production is efficient" is given as the definition of "economic efficiency". Pareto believes that efficiency  refers  to:  "Changing  the  allocation  of  a  resource  cannot  make  at  least  one  person‟s condition  better,  while  the  status  of  the  others  remains  the  same,  that  is,  there  is  no  Pareto improvement. This can be called this resource allocation. Is the best." Although the word "optimal" is used in "Pareto optimal", the meaning it expresses actually refers to efficiency, and is considered to be "Pareto efficient "This definition of efficiency is widely used by Western economics circles. In  summary,  efficiency  mainly  shows  the  gap  between  the  current  production  status  and  the  best production status, and mainly shows the relationship between input and output.
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2 Concept definition and theoretical basis

2.1 Total factor productivity theory
2.1.1 The concept of total factor productivity
Regarding  the  concept  of  total  factor  productivity,  it  has  attracted  the  attention  of  the academic  community  a  long  time  ago.  It  really  originated  from  the  American  national  standa rd "Industrial  Engineering  Terminology",  which  regards  total  factor  productivity  (TEP)  as  the  total output and all input factors. The ratio of the total amount, but in the production process, due to the difference  in  the  statistical  manifestations  of  input  and  output,  the  existence  of  this  difference produces a variety of evaluation and calculation methods for total factor productivity. In the early research  on  total  factor  productivity,  the  American  economist  Soro  believed  that  total  factor productivity  is  equal  to  total  productivity  minus  the  productivity  brought  by  the  input  factors  of production,  specifically  referring  to  the  input  labor  and  capital  factor  productivity,  that  is,  total factor productivity is productivity. The part of value-added that cannot be explained by labor and capital  productivity.  It  is  that  total  factor  productivity  is  an  efficiency  index  that  reflects  the transformation  of  production  input  into  final  output.  It  can  measure  technological  changes  other than labor and capital changes, and is an important indicator commonly used to measure economic growth. Solow believes that economic growth depends on capital and labor input and technological progress, and considers technological progress as an input factor independent of labor and ca pital. Ma Hanwu (1999) believes that total factor productivity is a measurement and evaluation indicator, which can measure the resource utilization efficiency of a sector or a country, as well as the overall economic development level of a sector or a country.
Many  scholars  also  believe  that  since  it  is  total  factor  productivity,  it  should  include  all factors  of  production,  and  should  not  exclude  capital  and  labor.  The  more  factors  of  production that are considered, the more comprehensive the total factor  productivity calculated will be  more researched. significance. The divergence in the definition of total factor productivity mainly stems from  the  definition  of  "total  factors",  whether  it  should  include  all  production  input  factors including  capital,  labor,  technology,  management,  and  climate,  or  whether  to  exclude  capital  and labor  production  factors  For  the  convenience  of  research,  this  article  also  draws  on  the investigation of total factor productivity by  many scholars at home and abroad, and believes  that total  factor  productivity  should  follow  Solow's  concept  of  total  factor  productivity,  which  is defined  as  in  addition  to  the  two  major  material  factors  of  capital  and  labor.  The  growth  rate  of total output brought about by all other production input factors. 
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2.2 Efficiency theory
2.2.1 Efficiency
As one of the common basic concepts in economic society, efficiency has extremely rich and important connotations. It is generally believed that efficiency mainly refers to the effectiveness of the allocation of scarce resources, that is, through the different combinations of v arious elements in  the  allocation  of  different  subjects,  so  that  each  input  element  is  transformed  into  the  output capacity. When it is at the optimal efficiency, the allocation of various resources reaches the most reasonable  level.  In  modern  economic  theory,  we  also  call  it  Pareto  efficiency  or  Pareto  optimal. Specifically, Pareto Optimality is based on the assumption that certain technologies and the limited scarce resources that can be allocated, the overall situation of all people is at the optimal lev el. If the  benefits  of  some  people  are  to  be  further  improved,  then  It  can  only  be  achieved  under conditions that harm the benefits of others.
2.2.2 Production efficiency
Production  efficiency  refers  to  the  ratio  between  the  observed  value  of  output  and  the maximum  theoretical  output  under  a  certain  technological  level  and  given  input  factors.  At  the same  time,  production  efficiency  is  also  a  measure  of  the  performance  leve l  of  an  economic individual under the conditions of specific input elements, costs, profit goals, and income, that is, it reflects the degree of achieving the ideal goal of maximum output. It is generally believed that input is the sum of the quantity or amount of resource elements used in production and operation, and  all  the  benefits  brought  by  these  input  resource  elements  in  the  process  of  production  and operation  are  output.  We  can  determine  whether  the  resource  allocation  plan  is  efficient  through the corresponding relationship between the input and output of resource elements in the process of production  activities.  When  it  is  satisfied  that  the  most  output  is  obtained  with  the  least  input elements, we believe that the resource combination allocation  plan is reasonable and efficient (Cui Guang 2013). 
经济论文参考
经济论文参考
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3  多哥经济作物发展状况 .............................................. 26
3.1  多哥农业在世界农业发展中的地位 ............................. 26
3.2  多哥经济作物发展现状... ............................... 27
4  多哥经济作物的生产效率测度 ........................... 34
4.1  效率的定义 ...................................... 34
4.2  效率的评价方法 ....................................... 35 
5  多哥经济作物生产效率影响因素的实证分析 ................................ 45
5.1  变量选取及类型 ............................... 45
5.2  实证分析 .............................................. 46

5  An  empirical  analysis  of  influencing  factors  in  Togo‟s economic crop production

5.1 Variable selection and type
In  this  paper,  Tobit  model  was  used  to  further  analyze  the  factors  affecting  the  production efficiency  of  cash  crops  in  Togo.The  dependent  variable,  the  togolese  cash  crop  productivity (EFFIC),  is  calculated  in  detail  in  Chapter  4.Independent  variables  are  factors  that  affect  the production efficiency of cash crops in Togo.According to the characteristics of the economic crop production, in combination with related literature, from the impact of economic crop production of people, goods, content, natural conditions and so on selection factors,  main production areas, the main  choice  Togo  economic  crop  land  circulation,  basic  education  level,  the  financial  funds  for supporting agriculture, natural disasters and other factors, and make the following assumptions:
(1) Land transfer positively promotes the production efficiency of cash crops.Land transfer is conducive  to  large-scale  production  of  cash  crops,  further  forming  scale  effect  and  large-scale centralized production, which is conducive to realizing higher agricultural mechani zation level and improving production efficiency of cash crops.In this paper, a dummy variable is used to represent land transfer (LZ). The value of LZ is 1, otherwise it is 0.
(2)  The  lower  the  level  of  basic  education,  the  lower  the  efficiency  of  cash  crop production.The  peasant  household  is  the  main  body  of  production,  and  its  cultural  level  directly affects  the  production  efficiency.The  low  level  of  basic  education  in  rural  areas  discourages farmers from using advanced technology.In this paper, the proportion of high school education and above  in  the  population  aged  15  and  above  (EDU)  is  used  to  indicate  the  level  of  rural  basic education. (3) Financial support for agriculture has a positive effect on the production efficiency of cash cropsAdequate  government  investment  can  provide  cotton  farmers  with  the  hardware  facilities needed  for  production,  and  increasing  government  investment  in  cash  crop  production  is  an external  condition  to  ensure  the  high  efficiency  of  cash  crop  production.In  this  paper,  the proportion  of  agricultural  fiscal  expenditure  to  total  fiscal  expenditure  (FIN)  is  used  to  represent the agricultural production capital input level in each cash crop producing area.
经济论文怎么写
经济论文怎么写
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6 Conclusion and recommendations

6.1 Conclusion
From  the  perspective  of  the  production  efficiency  of  different  cash  crops,  the  overall production  efficiency  of  Togolese  cotton  growers,  cocoa  growers  and  coffee  beans  growers  is equivalent,  all  between  0.550-0.56.  The  difference  in  technical  efficiency  and  scale  efficiency  of the  three  types  of  farmers  is  obvious.  From  the  perspective  of  production  efficiency  in  different economic  regions,  Region  Centrale  has  the  highest  overall  production  efficiency,  and  Region Maritime  has  the  second  highest  overall  production  efficiency.  The  production  efficiency  of Region des Savanes, Region deKara and Region des Plateaux is significantly behind, with 0.527, 0.466  and  0.398  respectively.  Region  Centrale  has  the  highest  technical  efficiency  at  0.933, indicating that the input elements of the Central Region are highly utilized. At the same time, the scale efficiency of this area is 0.731, indicating that the ratio of input factors in this area is more appropriate.  Region  Maritime  has  the  highest  scale  efficiency  at  0.817,  indicating  that  the  input elements  of  the  coastal  area  are  more  efficient  in  use.  The  low  scale  efficiency  of  Region  des Plateaux,  Region  Centrale,  and  Region  des  Savanes  indicates  that  the  use  of  input  elements  in these regions is inefficient, and it is necessary to improve the efficiency of input element allocation. Analyze  the  overall  production  efficiency  of  Togo‟s  cash  crops  from  the  time  dimension.  From 2015  to  2019,  the  overall  production  efficiency  of  cash  crops  in  the  Central  Region  has  always remained the first, and during the five-year period, the increase has been significant, from 0.451 to 0.682. During 2015-2019, the overall production efficiency of Maritime District and Kara District also showed an upward trend, and the upward trend was significant. However, from 2015 to 2019, the overall production efficiency of the Savane and plateaux areas stagnated and did not improve.
This  paper  further  uses  the  Togo  efficiency  data  and  uses  the  DEA-Tobit  model  two-stage method  to  analyze  the  impact  of  land  transfer  and  element  input  on  the  production  efficiency  of agricultural crops, enriching the research in this field, and the main conclusions obtaine d are: the average of the sample farmers The production efficiency is only 0.143, which is at a very low level, and  there  is  still  much  room  for  improvement.  The main  reason  for  the  low efficiency  is  the  low technical efficiency, which shows that the application of agricultural production technology of the sample  farmers  needs  to  be  improved  urgently.  Agricultural  land  transfer  (including  transfer  and transfer), peasant household education level and financial support to agriculture can significantly promote  the  improvement  of  cash  crop  production  efficiency.  Finally,  natural  disasters  are  not conducive to improving the production efficiency of cash crops.
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