概念流利性理论下英语概要写作母语背景影响的比较探讨

论文价格:150元/篇 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis 编辑:硕博论文网 点击次数:
论文字数:32663 论文编号:sb2022041214053746181 日期:2022-04-19 来源:硕博论文网
本文是一篇英语论文,本文选取了具有同等教育背景的英语国家的中非英语学生和以英语为母语的学生进行了一次总结性写作测试,并收集结果进行语料库分析。

Chapter One   Introduction

1.1 Research Background
Conceptual fluency is defined as the ability to “close-to-native understanding and practice of concepts” (Kecskes, 2000). The incremental development of the learner’s conceptual fluency signifies the maturity of specific conceptual knowledge storage and invoking mechanism—the “statically accumulated knowledge” and the ability out of “dynamically practical mechanism” which are essential for the coalition of target language’s surface representation and the covert concepts. 
Conventional  second  language  acquisition  study  regards  nativist  and  environmentalist visions  as  the  entry  point  (Freeman,  1991).  In  the  past  20  years,  the  escalation  of  cognitive science with conceptual fluency hypothesis suggests the interaction between hard-wired and external  factors  (Wen  &  Jiang,  2001),  exploring  the  subject’s  abilities  while  facing  specific conceptualization  requests  (Jiang,  2009).  So  such  fluency  is  also  recognized  as  “conceptual competence”. The unity between the internal and the external indicates that the exploration for conceptual  fluency  needs  to  consider  both  the  properties  of  the  object  and  the  cognitive mechanism from the subject. Research on conceptual fluency has gradually become the primary method  to  explore  the  transfer  from  the  mother  tongue  in  view  of  the  first  language’s interference  to  the  second  in  L2  learner’s  cognition.  Therefore,  the  quest  for  accuracy  has altered its research methodology from general inductive-based qualitative research to inference-based quantitative research. Former qualitative analyses shed light on second language learners’ “dual  language  systems”  enclosing  mother  language  and  second  language’s  two  pairs  of “statically accumulated knowledge” and “dynamically practical mechanism”. Limited by the primacy effect, the native language system tends to overtake the accumulation and activation system  through  the  second  language  acquisition  development,  which  causes  the  mother language’s imprints in the learners’ input capabilities of the second language, that is, “covert nonnative-likeness” (Jiang, 2015). 
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1.2 Research Question
In summary, based on the theory of conceptual fluency and dual language systems, this article  explores  the  externalization  mode  of  “statically  accumulated  knowledge”  and “dynamically  practical  mechanism”  in  C-ESL’s  summary  writing  initiated  by  the  varying language  background.  Essentially,  it  is  a  study  for  specific  differences  between  English  and Chinese languages in the cognitive domain.
Specifically, on the strength of the hypothesis of conceptual fluency, this research conducts a comparative study for the influence of mother tongue background on summary writing and further confirms whether the crux of the C-ESL’s English summary writing dwells in the ability to  nominalize  concepts  and  the  specific  textual  externalization  mode  of  such  fluency.  It  is believed  that  C-ESL’s  hindrance  is  in  the  process  of  accumulation  and  processing  for nominalization  of  the  original  information  in  the  summary  writing,  resulting  in  insufficient compression and interpretation of the message and further leads to insufficient textual anaphora and thematic deviation, finally contributing to non-native like style in English summary writing.
This paper collects the summary writing results of C-ESL of English majors and students with English as a first language for textual analysis through corpus methods such as Antword profiler and Antconc so as to investigate the specific differences between the conceptual fluency representations  and  their  impact  on  textual  cohesion  strategy  in  the  summary  writing.  The questions to be studied are as follows: 
(1) Are there any differences in the overall vocabulary complexity (statically accumulated knowledge) in the English summary writing for students with different language backgrounds?
(2) Are there any differences in the use of nouns (statically accumulated knowledge) by students of different language backgrounds?
(3) Are  there  any  differences  in  topic  prominence  from  the  original  text  (dynamically practical mechanism) by the keyword list in the summary writing between students of different language backgrounds?
(4)  In  the  frequency  of  keywords  in  the  summary  writing  of  students  with  different language  backgrounds,  to  what  extent  are  the  nouns  (statically  accumulated  knowledge  and dynamically practical mechanism) involved in the topic prominence?
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Chapter Two   Literature Review

2.1 Conceptual Fluency 's Externalization in Summary Writing
This chapter mainly discusses the conceptual fluency externalization modality sketched out in summary from lexical and textual perspective for the preparation of conceptual ground.
2.1.1 Internal Mechanism of Conceptual Fluency
Over the years, domestic and abroad scholars have continuously provide their   awareness of more particular enquiry of conceptual fluency's internal mechanism for second languages. Known as a metaphorical competence, such a mechanism serves as the subjects' ability of cross-domain  mapping  and  concepts  integration  (Danesi,  1992).  Based  on  the  metaphorical competence theory of Danesi (1992), the conceptual fluency theory was extended by Kecskes (2000), the ability of conceptual generation and encoding with authenticity and accuracy. The more knowledge reserves, the more situation-bound the subject has. The conversational ability test  within  the  English  EFL  group  and  the  English  mother  tongue  group  reveals  the insufficiency of the situation-bound knowledge from the EFL group, with limited generating and  encoding  abilities  under  pragmatic  discourse,  leading  to  verbosity,  overuse, oversimplification and ignoring the key information. Based on the above discovery, Kecskes believes that the subsymbolic sensitivity of EFL learners encompasses two separate systems from both their mother tongue and second language—the “dual language systems”. The less developed “statically accumulated knowledge” and “dynamically practical mechanism” of the second  language  contributes  to  the  nature  of  L1  transfer,  the  side  effect  from  the  mother language over the second language. Meanwhile, the mastery of second language's accumulation and invocation toward certain annotated lexicon represents the so-called conceptual fluency. Kecskes (2005) further developed a taxonomy between high and low conceptual fluency. The former is the “concept mediation”, which is expressed as the subject's independent activation of the accumulation system; the latter is the “word association” of the “dual language systems”. 
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2.2 Conceptual Fluency and Categorical Perspective
Subject's  conceptualization  of  objective  instance  constitutes  the  underlying  conceptual knowledge, part of which forms the “statically accumulated knowledge” for further encoding processing device (Jiang, 2015). According to cognitive psychology: the conceptualization of object  adheres  to  the  “gestalt  principle”  (Ungere  &  Schmidt,  2009).  Such  conceptualization relies  predominately  on  the  object’s  holistic  sensitivity  and  then  a  detailed  description  for completion. The concepts’ holistic perception determines the inter-concept’s relationship and their  level  of  typicality.  The  gestalt  principle  is  therefore,  subdivided  into  “principle  of proximity”, “principle of similarity”, “principle of closure” and “principle of continuation”. All detailed  impressions  out  of  Gestalt  principle  formulate  the  attributes  cluster  from  category member  that  adheres  to  the  principle  of  family  resemblance,  a  network  of  overlapping similarities. 
Since the conceptualization of object follows the gestalt principle, the functionally relevant parts  of  each  members  construct  the  prototype,  an  organism  of  the  related  attributes  cluster, determining the typicality’s hierarchy, the goodness magnitude from the good samples to the bad  samples.  Among  the  attributes  cluster,  overlapping  contribution  to  specific  members’ impression,  representation  of  family  resemblance—  a  concept  only  needs  one  attribute overlapping with a cluster for the minimal qualification as the cluster’s categorical member. The  family  resemblance  provides  theoretical  explanation  for  attributes’  contribution  to  the internal structure of prototypical category even if they are not common to all category members. Finally,  the  varying  categorical  members  with  a  varying  distribution  of  central  attributes attribute to the arbitrariness of subjects' experience and cultural subconsciousness.
英语论文参考
英语论文参考
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Chapter Three   Methodology ................... 17
3.1 Research Theory ............................ 17
3.2 Participants .................................... 18
3.3 Context ........................ 18
Chapter Four   Results and Discussions ......................... 21
4.1 Vocabulary Complexity ............................. 21
4.2 Noun Density ......................................................... 23
4.3 Topic Summarization and Integration Performance ......................... 24
Chapter Five   Conceptual Fluency’s Varying Externalization Pattern .................. 34
5.1 Impact from Chinese on Fluency’s Externalization Pattern ........................ 34
5.1.1 Impact on Lexical Complexity ........................... 34
5.1.2. Impact on Noun Density ................................ 35 

Chapter Five   Conceptual Fluency’s Varying Externalization Pattern 

5.1 Impact from Chinese on Fluency’s Externalization Pattern
This section’s emphasis is on the C-ESL group’s concept generation and encoding ability in summary writing and its further impact on verbosity, low information density, nonnative-like textual structure and ambiguous textual topic. This section is divided into four parts: impact on externalization pattern from Chinese as mother language to English summary writing's lexical complexity, noun density, topic saliency, textual cohesion.
5.1.1 Impact on Lexical Complexity
Research  demonstrates  the  C-ESLs'  reliance  on  the  mother  language  system,  the  “word association” mechanism for concept retrieving, encoding and output (Kecskes & Isabel, 2005). Such procedure represents the domination of the Chinese conceptual processing channel. After storing the external message, Chinese lexical activation channel will dominantly retrieve the concept into Chinese and then translate the second-handed concept into English. Because of deficient effective correction and feedback, such conceptual input and output pattern in turn compromises  student's  understanding  of  English-based  conceptual  knowledge.  Lack  of  in-depth understanding (Kaivanpanah, 2019) further snuffs out the dynamic conceptual retrieving and encoding capacity, a vicious circle. From the perspective of conceptual fluency, the above-mentioned  mechanism  showcases  the  mother  language's  negative  transfer  reflecting  the migration of Chinese dynamic activation strategy to English, therefore enables a substitution of English  statically  accumulated  knowledge  mechanism.  And  such  static  transfer  further influences  the  dynamic  generation  and  encoding  patterns.  In  other  words,  because  of  the insufficient understanding of Chinese-English conceptual knowledge difference, the subject's concept and lexical storage are compromised by its reliance on Chinese activation channel for both  conceptualization  and  information  repacking  as  long-term  memory.  Because  of  the discrepant conceptualization patterns between English and Chinese parties, like the penchant for noun and noun phrases in English text but verb or verb phrase in Chinese to encoding the same semantic unit, the negative transfer from Chinese impedes the output of complex English vocabulary, which may explain the low lexical complexity of Chinese C-ESL group's summary writing. In essence, it reflects the insufficient accumulation and activation of specific concept knowledge.
英语论文怎么写
英语论文怎么写
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Chapter Six   Conclusions

6.1 Major Findings
Conceptual  fluency  is  an  academic  framework  for  investigating  the  unfathomable mechanism of language input and output, a novel perspective for second language acquisition and cross-language research. Based on the hypothesis, this article believes that word association generation and encoding processes lead to a low level of conceptual fluency, which is mainly manifested by the insufficiency of nominalized concepts. The insufficiency may be triggered by the C-ESL group’s deficient accumulation and invocation knowledge of English concepts and their prototypical category’s organization and distribution pattern as well as the patterns of superordinated  and  subordinated  categories.  Summary  writing  requires  students  to  actively conceptualize English information. A comparison between the native and C-ESL group may be a channel to test students’ conceptual fluency. This paper’s comparative study among English as  L1  and  C-ESL  students  validifies  this  hypothesis  by  showcasing  the  C-ESL  group’s inadequate awareness of vocabulary complexity (73.03% VS 84.85%), noun’s density (237 VS 315,  54  VS  83),  topic  prominence,  noun’s  involvement  in  topic  prominence  which  form  a holistic description of the accumulation and activation of conceptual fluency. Since the lexical unit contributes to textual fluency, this article further tests the frequency of textual cohesion markers from six perspectives. The manual annotation and text analysis expose the conjunction-oriented (40.3% VS 17.8%, 17.3% VS 30.5%), instead of lexical oriented cohesion strategy, a profound spreading from C-ESL’s fragmental lexical knowledge to their nonnative-like textual structure.  At  the  same  time,  the  study  found  that  Chinese  students  often  use  gerunds  and adjectives  to  modify  noun  phrases,  reflecting  the  attempt  and  failure  of  Chinese  students  to compress the concept and categorical knowledge of certain syntactic relations within phrases.
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