留学生计算机作业模板:The Examples Of Operating Systems Computer Science Essay

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本文是计算机专业的留学生作业模板范例,题目是“The Examples Of Operating Systems Computer Science Essay(操作系统的例子计算机科学论文)”,操作系统是“计算机系统的一个软件组件,负责管理计算机的各种活动和共享计算机资源。”它承载运行在计算机上的几个应用程序,并处理计算机硬件的操作。”操作系统处理输出设备(显示器)、输入设备(键盘和鼠标)和外围设备(打印机)。基本上,它确保操作系统识别输入设备,显示输出设备,并控制外围设备。在较大的系统中,操作系统会检查“不同的程序和用户在同一时间运行时不会相互干扰”(“网络百科:计算机和互联网术语和定义的在线计算机词典”)。此外,它还确保“未经授权的用户不会访问系统”(《网络百科:计算机和互联网术语和定义在线计算机词典》)。操作系统就像大型系统的安全卫士。操作系统的例子有磁盘操作系统(DOS)、Windows、MacOS和UNIX。
Abstract 摘要
Operating system is “a software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management of various activities of the computer and the sharing of computer resources. It hosts the several applications that run on a computer and handles the operations of computer hardware” (Oak). Operating system handles and deals with the output devices (a monitor), input devices (keyboard and mouse), and peripheral devices (a printer). Basically, it makes sure that the operating system identifies the input devices, displays the output devices, and controls the peripheral devices. In larger systems, operating system checks to see “different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other” (“Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Computer and Internet Terms and Definitions.”). In addition, it makes sure “that unauthorized users do not access the system” (“Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Computer and Internet Terms and Definitions.”). Operating system acts like a security guard for the larger systems. Examples of operating systems are Disk Operating System (DOS), Windows, MacOS, and UNIX.
Different types of operating system are as follow: Embedded system, Real-time Operating System, Multi-user Operating Systems, Multi-tasking Operating Systems, and Distributed Operating Systems. Embedded systems are mostly for personal digital assistant (PDA) like mobile devices; they are compact and efficient. A couple examples of embedded operating systems are Minix 3 and Windows CE. Real-time Operating System likes to multitask and use algorithms, and they have a quick and immediate respond to inputs. Multi-user Operating Systems allows more than one user to access the computer and runs various programs. Multi-tasking Operating Systems are when various programs run at one time. Windows 95 is an example of this operating system. Distributed Operating System manages a group of computers and makes them emerge into one computer. Those are the different types of operating systems (Oak).
不同类型的操作系统有:嵌入式操作系统、实时操作系统、多用户操作系统、多任务操作系统和分布式操作系统。嵌入式系统主要用于移动设备等个人数字助理(PDA);它们紧凑而高效。嵌入式操作系统的两个例子是Minix 3和Windows CE。实时操作系统喜欢多任务和使用算法,它们对输入有快速和即时的响应。多用户操作系统允许多个用户访问计算机并运行各种程序。多任务操作系统是指各种程序同时运行。Windows 95就是这个操作系统的一个例子。分布式操作系统管理一组计算机,使它们成为一台计算机。这些是不同类型的操作系统(Oak)。
1.History of Operating Systems 操作系统的历史
Throughout history, mainframe operating systems evolve and led to so many different kinds of operating system such as UNIX, Window, and MacOs. Without this, then different kinds of operating system will not be created, and many people today will have difficulties obtaining the information they need. In order to begin this, mainframe operating system started around the 1950s right before desktop computers and laptops were created.
纵观历史,大型机操作系统不断发展并产生了许多不同类型的操作系统,如UNIX、Window和MacOs。没有这一点,就不会有不同种类的操作系统被创造出来,今天的许多人将难以获得他们需要的信息。为此,大型机操作系统始于桌面电脑和笔记本电脑诞生之前的20世纪50年代。
As computer programs became difficult to use, and the hardware of the computer became less expensive, computer engineers tried to figure out ways for the computer to adapt to the same and various types of programs. Based on that, they created the mainframe operating system. Mainframe operating system “process large amounts of information and support a great number of users” (“WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions.”). This powerful device was used before and currently today by businesses, corporations, and governments because they needed a machine that could handle large databases for use or storage, large bandwidth, and reliability. When mainframe operating system was first created, they did not have any input devices (keyboard, nor mouse). Their input was through cards with holes punched into them; the holes being poke were the sign of data being entered. After that, the operating system read the cards and then transfers them into binary (1’s&0’s), so it could be understood by computers.
The most popular mainframe operating system was the OS/360. It was created at the end of 1965 by International Business Machines (IBM); its goal was to compute various lines of hardware. IBM wants “to merge these separate lines into one product and developed a new way of thinking about the commonalities amongst processes they were previously thought to irreconcilable” (Lunny).
Examples of mainframe operating systems were: z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, Linux for System z, z/TPF. z/OS was designed to offer security, constant, and availability for applications running on the mainframe. “z/OS gets work done by dividing it into pieces and giving portions of the job to various system components and subsystems that function interdependently” (“IBM”). z/VM (Virtual Machine) runs different operating systems such z/OS, z/VSE, Linux for System, z/TPF in the virtual machines. Basically z/VM could run combination of guest systems. z/VSE (Virtual Storage Extend), known as DOS, ran “routine production workloads consisting of multiple batch jobs and extensive, traditional transaction processing” (“IBM”). Link for System z used ASCII characters and traditional count key data, and z/TPF (Transaction Processing Facility) was used by airline reservation systems and credit card companies for high transaction volume. Those were examples of mainframe operating systems (“IBM”).
2.Examples of Operating System: UNIX 操作系统的例子:UNIX
Based on the mainframe operating systems, it led to many different types of operating systems. One example of an operating system would be UNIX. UNIX was created by one of the Bell Labs member, Kenneth Thompson in 1969. This was intended for programmers to “access the computer at the same time and share its resources” (“Alcatel Lucent”). UNIX controls the commands from the keyboard, and the data being generated. Also, it “permits each user to believe he or she is the only person working on the computer” (“Alcatel Lucent”). This operating system became so powerful that industries, governments, businesses, and so forth wanted this operating system. This idea became popular in the programming and scientific communities.
在大型机操作系统的基础上,它产生了许多不同类型的操作系统。操作系统的一个例子就是UNIX。UNIX是由贝尔实验室成员之一肯尼斯·汤普森于1969年创建的。这是为了让程序员“同时访问计算机并共享其资源”(“阿尔卡特朗讯”)。UNIX控制来自键盘的命令和生成的数据。此外,它“允许每个用户相信他或她是唯一一个在计算机上工作的人”(“阿尔卡特朗讯”)。这个操作系统变得如此强大,以至于行业、政府、企业等等都想要这个操作系统。这个想法在编程界和科学界开始流行起来。
Based on this superior operating system, its features were: Multitasking capability, multiuser capability, portability, UNIX programs, and Library of application software. One of the features, multitasking, allows a computer to do several things. For instance, this operating system allows a person to create a document while the other run spell check, and the other one editing a document. Another feature, multiuser, allows users to “access the same document by compartmentalizing the document so that the changes of one user don’t override the changes of another user” (“Alcatel Lucent”). Portability is another feature that moves a brand of computer to another with a code of changes. This helps the operating system to be upgraded without the customer inputting the data. Library of application is another feature that can be purchased from third-party vendors, so they can use it (“Alcatel Lucent”).
UNIX comes from several programs (at least 100 and more); they can be divided into two classes. The two classes are integral utilities and tools; Integral utilities are “necessary for the operation of the computer, such as the command interpreter” (“Alcatel Lucent”). Another class is the tools; it provides the person with “additional capabilities, such as typesetting capabilities and e-mail” (“Alcatel Lucent”). Basically, tools could be removed or added whether if the applications are required or not. That is the final feature of the Unix Program.
UNIX communication came a long way before the development of the World Wide Web. It first allowed people to communicate with each by email at the same terminals. Then users at different machines were connected, so they could communicate too. As a result, they link around the world into the World Wide Web, so it made it easier for other users to communicate.
The UNIX is organized at three levels; they are the kernel, the shell, and the tools and applications. The kernel, “schedules tasks and manages storage” (“Alcatel Lucent”) and are controlled by programmer’s command. Meaning they can tell the system to shut off or on. In the kernel level, it tells the computer to read the files, and then display the files on the screen. The shell “connects and interprets users’ commands, calls programs from memory, and executes them” (“Alcatel Lucent”) allowing the output of a program to become the input of another program. The tools and application “offer additional functionality to the operating system” (“Alcatel Lucent”). That is how UNIX is organized at those three levels.
留学生作业辅导
留学生作业辅导
3.Example of Operating System: Windows 操作系统示例:Windows
Another example of an operating system is Microsoft Windows. Windows came a long way, and the features that people see today were not like that in the past. In 1975, Paul Allen and Bill Gates saw an article regarding about the MITS Altair 8800 (a microcomputer). They had a better idea and decided it was their time to do something about it. Based on that, they developed and formed Microsoft Corporation in 1975.
操作系统的另一个例子是Microsoft Windows。Windows已经发展了很长一段时间,人们今天看到的功能与过去不同。1975年,保罗·艾伦和比尔·盖茨看到了一篇关于MITS Altair 8800(微型计算机)的文章。他们有了一个更好的主意,并决定是时候做些什么了。在此基础上,他们在1975年成立了微软公司。
On November 20, 1985, Microsoft launched Windows 1.0. This was the first display screen where you could use your mouse, type, and see the screen. According to Bill Gates, he said, “It is unique software designed for the serious PC user” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). They also have icons, scroll bars, drop-down menus for people to understand, learn, and be able to use it. Some of the programs included are Notepad, Paint, MS-DOS file management, clock, etc; also they have a game called Reversi (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released on December 9, 1987; this includes expanded memory and provided desktop icons. Having the graphics to be better improved, you could “overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up your work” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). Also, the taskbar was removed; the utilities and the program are still the same. Intel 286 was designed for Window 2.0. Overall, Windows continue to develop better speeds, usability, and reliability of the PC. In addition of this creation, Control Panel was born (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
During 1990 to 1994, Microsoft launched two more operating systems; they were Windows 3.0 and Windows NT. Window 3.0 was released on May 22, 1990 followed by Windows 3.1 in 1992. Windows 3.0 had “better performance, advanced graphics with 16 colors, and improved icons” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). In addition, with the Intel 386, the programs ran a little bit faster. Print Manager, Program Manager, and File Manager started to appear in Windows 3.0; with this operating system rapidly growing, it released software development kit (SDK). This helped software developer’s focus on writing programs rather than writing device drivers. Games such as Hearts, Solitaire, and Minesweeper came along too. Another operating system that launched in 1990 to 1994 was Windows NT; it was released on July 27, 1993. This however, provided a 32-bit operating system generally for business platform, and Windows NT represents “a fundamental change in the way that companies can address their business computing requirements” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
On August 24, 1995, Microsoft launched Windows 95. It sold about seven million copies by the end of the fifth week. With this creation, it led to the start menu, close, maximize, and minimize, and taskbar in Windows 95. This helped included “Plug and Play capabilities that made it easy to install hardware and software” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). Based on this, Internet Explorer (the first version) was created; this was basically the new online world and people could email each other (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
In 1998 to 2000, Microsoft released Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows Me. Windows 98 was released on June 25, 1998; this operating system was described “as an operating system that works better, play betters” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). You could find information much easier on your pc, and you could open or close programs much quicker. Another benefit was, you could read DVD discs, and have universal serial bus (USB) devices. One feature that came into appearance was the quick launch bar; this made it easier to run programs without browsing at your desktop, or the start menu. Windows 2000 came along during February 2000; this improved “reliability, ease of use, Internet compatibility, and support for mobile computing (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”). Also, it provided variety of new plug and play hardware, wireless products, USB devices, etc. Windows Me was released on September 2000; this provided video, music, and home networking entertainment for home users. Based on this, System Restore was appeared for the first time. This makes your PC go back in time if you accidently install a program that affects your computer (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
On October 25, 2001, Window XP was released with better features, usability, and security, reliability, and performance. This help cooperate the use and emphasis of Help and Support; it is when you need help on one particular program. This operating system helped citizens understand viruses and mistrustful attachments that could damage your computer. Windows Media player became better in style, and the way it looks. In addition, it led to wireless connectivity, Windows Messenger, Remote Assistance, and 64-bit Edition (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
In 2006, Windows Vista was released; this provides the best security system you get, so you don’t have to buy too much protection on your computer. You could buy a simple security system, and you would be fine. One feature was the Window Media Center; that was for entertainment. If you have TV Tuner, you could watch, pause, and record live TV. Another feature was the taskbar; they remade the Taskbar to look better and different from previous operating systems. Lastly, the network section became user friendly, so people could easily connect to any network that was unprotected, or their network.
On October, 2009 Microsoft released Window 7; this feature was similar to Window Vista, yet it has more advantages. The main feature that Window 7 has is the Touch feature. This feature enabled you to touch the screen like the web browser and so forth if you have a touch screen computer. By 2010 during the fall, “Windows 7 is selling seven copies a second—-the fastest selling operating system in history” (“Windows Home – Microsoft Windows”).
4.Examples of Operating System: MacOS 操作系统示例:MacOS
MacOS is another example of Operating System. It is part of Apple and was created by Steve Jobs. The first version of MacOs was released in 1984; it was user friendly because you did not need to use the right click button on the mouse. Also, it did not have command line interface. After that, it released System 3.0, which could not tell the difference between lowercase and uppercase letters to System 5.0, which ran multiple programs at the same time.
MacOS是操作系统的另一个例子。它是苹果的一部分,由史蒂夫·乔布斯创建。第一个版本的MacOs发布于1984年;它是用户友好的,因为您不需要使用鼠标上的右键按钮。此外,它没有命令行界面。在那之后,它发布了System 3.0,它不能区分小写字母和大写字母,而System 5.0可以同时运行多个程序。
Four years later in 1988, System 6.0 came along; this could organize hard disks up to two GBs (gigabyte). This had multitasking capability and it provided word processes programs like “WriteNow, MacWrite II, and Microsoft Word 4.0” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”). In May 1991, System 7 was released, and virtual memory was allowed to be used. This also helped display colors and incorporated a help section (the balloon), so the user did not have trouble using the interface. Based on this, System 7.5 appeared in 1994 with slightly better features. Some of the feature and benefits were bug fixes and storage drives could store use up to four GBs. In early 1997, they changed the name from System to MacOS 7.6. Performance improved a lot in the memory management and virtual memory. QuickTime Version 2.5, a pure image quality, was featured in this operating system.
MacOS 8 was released on July 1997 and MacOS 9 on October 23, 1999. This lead to three different versions; they were: MacOS 8.1, MacOS 8.5, and MacOS 8.6 versions. In MacOS 8.1, information could be stored efficiently, and the system could handle up to two billion files! In MacOS 8.5, the speed became much better and the graphic display was fast by QuickDraw routines. Also, copying files’ speed was much faster than before. In 8.5, you had these kinds of applications: “Finder 8.5 QuickTime Pro 3, Open Transport 2, Internet Explorer 4.01, Outlook Express 4.01, Netscape Navigator 4.0.5, Mac OS Runtime for Java 2.0 and File Exchange 3” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”). In MacOS 8.6, it improved the performance and supported the PowerPC G4 processor giving it the ability to multitask with the new features. In MacOS 9, they had 50 additional features, and “This includes support for multiple users with password and access management for files and settings” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”). Your login could be use by voice, and the files could be encrypted for security.
The final Operating System for Mac so far, but has different versions was MacOS X. The first version, 10.0 was released on March 2001; this help made the display look better and not as dull as before. Their icons were place in a docket at the bottom of the screen. Then, version MacOS X 10.1 was released; with this, “The surface reacts quicker at user interaction, the system start was accelerated and the OpenGL performance increased noticeable” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”). Mac OS X 10.3 began to have Graphic User Interface in metallic scheme and the finder (optimized). Mac OS X 10.4 had 200 features including Safari 2.0 (web browser). MacOS X 10.5 offered “the user an enhanced user interface with virtual desktops, a fast file preview and Dock with 3D effect” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”). MacOS X 10.6 (currently used today) improved performance, speed, and stability. It could support up “to 16 TByte memory, it is optimized for multi core processors, and is a pure 64-bit operating system. With the technology OpenCL graphics processor can speed up in specific applications calculations” (“Operating System Reviews (History, Facts, Versions and Screenshots)”).
留学生作业范文参考
留学生作业范文参考
5.Which Operating System do People use? Which one is recommended for you? 人们使用哪种操作系统?你推荐哪一种?
Those are the examples of the operating system, so which operating system would companies, businesses, and governments, individuals, or schools would use. Companies, businesses, and governments like to use Microsoft Windows especially Windows XP because they used it for over five years. Also, they did want not upgrade to Vista because the security features it had would slow down the computer.
这些都是操作系统的例子,那么公司、企业、政府、个人或学校会使用哪种操作系统呢?公司、企业和政府都喜欢使用微软的Windows系统,尤其是Windows XP,因为他们已经用了五年多的时间。此外,他们不想升级到Vista,因为它的安全特性会降低电脑的运行速度。
Overall, they like to use Windows XP because they are simple and easy to use. Also, some companies, businesses, and governments would use UNIX if you a programmer or a computer scientist. For school, they like to stay up-to-date, so they would used Windows 7. For individuals, it is up to them what they want to use. If you are the kind of person who likes to play games, watch movies, and TV then you should consider Microsoft Windows. If you are a creative person meaning like to edit music, film, and design fields, then you should consider the MacOS. Overall, many people in the world uses different kinds of Operating System.
6.Future of Operating System 操作系统的未来
The future of Operating system would be quite interesting because since many people rely on technology, how would the future be like? One blog that was interesting was by Rafe Blandford. One fascinating thing he said that Social networking could possibility break out and become its own operating system.
操作系统的未来将会非常有趣,因为既然很多人都依赖于技术,那么未来会是什么样子呢?一个有趣的博客是雷夫·布兰福德写的。他说的一个有趣的事情是,社交网络有可能爆发并成为自己的操作系统。
“Operating systems will become more social as they marry context awareness, the Internet and your social connections. The information broadcast and received by your mobile device will be critical in connecting people in new and more immediate new ways” (Blandford). The thing is we do not how the future is going to be, so you never know what it is going to be in the future (Blandford).
In conclusion, operating system is the one that lead to many different kinds of Operating System today such as UNIX, Microsoft Windows, and MacOs. Without it, then people have difficulties doing their errands. The main credit for doing all these is the mainframe operating system. Basically just one simple thing can lead to multiple things. UNIX is designed for Programmers and the screen is blank. Programmers have to input coding, so they could see the end result (the output). Microsoft Windows started from Windows 1.0 and eventually leading to Window 7 (Current as of now), and MacOS started from Systems 1.0 and working its way up to MacOs X 10.6 (Current as of now). The main idea is to show people that without operating systems, our life would not be the same and will be miserable. This is what helps make our life easier and not complicated.
总之,操作系统导致了今天许多不同类型的操作系统,如UNIX、Microsoft Windows和MacOs。没有它,人们就很难做他们的差事。所有这些都归功于大型机操作系统。基本上,一件简单的事情可以导致很多事情。UNIX是为程序员设计的,屏幕是空白的。程序员必须输入代码,这样他们才能看到最终结果(输出)。微软的Windows从Windows 1.0开始,最终发展到Windows 7(目前为止),而MacOS从系统1.0开始,一直发展到MacOS X 10.6(目前为止)。我的主要想法是告诉人们,如果没有操作系统,我们的生活将会不一样,而且会很悲惨。这有助于我们的生活变得更简单而不复杂。
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